By Dec. 17, 2017on
- Political Science is a branch of social science which deals with the system of governance, activities and political behavior. It
deals with politics at all levels of governance, state, national as well as international. A well- known definition of
Political Science states that ‘It is the study of the state in present, past and future context.’
Like Social Science, political science is a study of individuals residing in the society within the framework of rules and regulations laid down by the law.
Politics has its origin in Greek ‘Polis’ meaning city-state. It deals with how the power is distributed and exercised within the city and the state.
In brief, politics deals with the three main areas:
- Broad aspects of civil, state and public affairs.
- Conflicts and resolution of conflicts.
- Distribution of power and exercise of power.
2.1 Comparative Politics
- Comparative Politics is a scientific study of more than one system of governance. Basically it is a comparison of varied
system of governments depending upon the geographical area, cultural diversities and historical orientation. It aims
at studying the pros and cons of each system of governance.
It not only studies the political systems in nations but also the political systems prevalent in societies, educational institutions, public and private sectors.
2.2 International Relations
- As the name suggests, it deals with the politics between the countries. It studies international institutions and organizations.
Form of governance employed in various countries across the world and how is it effective in terms of economy, security
and well- being of the people in general.Considers the political relationships and interactions among countries,
including the causes of war, the formation of foreign policy, international political economy, and the structures
that increase or decrease the policy options available to governments.
International Relations also involves the study of global issues such as terrorism, global warming, data-piracy to accumulate vital information. The advent of globalization has led to emerge in information, communication and technologies which also comes under international relations.
2.3 Public Administration
- It is the practical implementation of the government policies. Various regions follows a different system of governance.
For example: In a dictatorship setup, a hierarchy system is followed wherein the dictator has a final say in the
local issues. However in a liberal government the citizens share a major portion of the final decision. The citizens
also have the right to give feedback regarding the implementation of the policies and can also criticize the working
of the government. This system of governance can also be classified into centralized and decentralized setup of administration
2.4 Political theory
- It studies the various policies and why some are effective and some produce poor results.Itexamines the implementation
of all types of government policies, relating to civil rights, defense, health, education, economic growth, urban
renewal, regional development, and environmental protection.
2.5 Public Policy
- It involves the study of the policies enforced by the government for the overall benefit of people and whether the policies
are implemented or not. Improvements and feedback are also taken into account to make amendments in the policies.
2.6 Political Behavior
- It is the link between the people and the politics and politicians. The psychology of the people is studied to get their
support during elections. Political behavior studies involves considering the emotions and sentiments of the people
for the benefit of the politicians during elections.
3. Careers in Political Science
3.1 Policy Analysis
- Policy analysis requires studying the process of drafting and implementing public policies. It requires critical thinking
and writing skills for preparing the research papers about the public policies.
3.2 Media and Journalism
- Nowadays media and journalism has gained significance as it can reach masses within no time. A graduate degree in political
science can give you a boost in analytical skills. A career in media also requires a flair for writing which can
be developed through studying political science.
3.3 Teaching and Research
- PhD holders can take up a job as a lecturer in colleges and universities. Research workon subfields like comparative
politics, international relationscarried out by these professors are published in books and journals. This research
work further facilitates the policy- making process.
3.4 Career in law
- Lawyers and attorneys are the people who carry out the administrative tasks while maintaining the law and order in the
country. An attorney tries to influence the decision makers with the help of their findings and research. Also framing
of case studies is the task of the lawyers and attorneys.
4. Job Roles
- Policy Analyst: Responsible for formulating and implementing policies.
- Legislative Assistant: Responsible for resolving the issues of the citizens.
- Social Media Manager: Monitors the social media sites to gather views of the public regarding the administration.
- Public Relations Specialist: Responsible for influencing public opinions through press release, campaigns and social media content.
- Marketing Research Analyst: Analysis the reactions of the people to the candidates during elections.
- Political Consultant: Responsible for formulating strategies to improve the image of the politician in the public eye.
- Attorney: Researching the policy issues.
- Intelligent Analyst: Finds out the anti-social elements responsible for posing threat to the administration.
5. Education Track
- A bachelor’s degree in political science or journalism or communications is essential for pursuing a career in political
- Analytical skills
- Critical thinking
- Presentation and Communication skills.
- Leadership skills.
Pursuing a master’s degree in political science or journalism is a choice of the student.
PhD in political science enables the students to take up research work.
The skillset required to pursue a career in political science is:
- A degree in Political Science can enable a student to pursue a career in public administration, journalism, law, policy analysis,
social media management in various government, non-government and international organizations.
A PhD degree will certify the excellence in the field of politics that enables the student to carry out research work and prepare thesis of the work done.
7. Role Models
- A former President of the United States is a graduate of political science with a specialization in international relations
from Columbia University and Harvard Law School. He served as an attorney in civil rights before he entered politics.
When he was elected as a president of America in 2007, the country was under global economic recession. He introduced
some reforms that stabilized the American economy.
- A Russian politician served as an intelligence officer for few years. Later he was appointed as a senior assistant to
the head of department in intelligence office. He was a chairman of the Committee for International Relations. His
political journey landed him into the role of President of Russia and then Prime Minister of Russia.